India is a diverse country with different kinds of religions, cultures, traditional practices, lifestyle, etc. A perfect harmony exists between the people of different backgrounds and they live in this vast country as one. It is a tad difficult to estimate the exact ethnic origin of the people of India. This is essentially because there is not a single group that can be attributed to be the origin of ethnic Indian groups. People from all over the world came here centuries ago; some settled here permanently and some left. Given here is a short summary of the various ethnic groups that came to India and laid the foundation for the present day population.
Dravidian or Mediterranean
The Dravidians came from the Mediterranean side and are supposed to be one of the earliest visitors to India. They are credited with the establishment of the Indus Valley Civilization. They had a Wheatish complexion and were characterized by sharp facial features. With time, they went to the south of the country and settled there permanently.
The Mongoloids settled in the north eastern parts of the country in high mountain ranges. They can be attributed to have paved the way for the present day population at places like Sikkim, Ladakh, Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, and Tripura. The Mongoloids were characterized by a yellowish complexion, pale skin, small oblique eyes, blunt facial features, high cheekbones, medium height and thin hair.
Believed to have come from Africa, the Negritos were also one of the earliest settlers in India. They basically didn’t barge into the deeper areas of the country but instead stayed at the islands of Andaman, Nicobar and some parts of southern India. They survived in that original habitat and can still be found living a rustic lifestyle.
The Aryans were apparently the last ones to come to India. They acquired majority of the northern parts of the country after driving away the Dravidians to the south. They were characterized by their stout appearance and white skin. They can be attributed to the majority of the population of India, in the northern and central regions.
Proto - Australoids or Austrics
The Proto Australoids were credited to have laid the actual foundation for the civilization of India. They came to the country right after the Negritos. They were characterized by their brown skin, long heads, thick black hair, low foreheads, prominent eye ridges, flat noses, thick jaws, etc. They settled in some central and the entire eastern part of the country.
The Western Brachycephals include ethnic groups like Alpinoids, Dinarics, Armenoids, Parsis and Kodavas. The people were characterized by features like broad foreheads, brown skin, sharp features, etc. They occupied the western side of the country and can be called the foundation for the present day people in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.