Internet Telephony or VoIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol) is sometimes referred to as the technology of the future as it brings together all those possibilities that until a few years ago were considered as impossible. In this technology broadband internet connectivity is used to route telephone calls instead of the conventional switching and the fiber optic alternatives. This process holds great promise in providing higher efficiency and lower cost for communication for consumers. One interesting aspect of the technology is that, for the user, no large-scale infrastructure is required. It's all about combining the functionality of the Internet and a conventional phone into one single service with minimal software and hardware support. In VoIP, the standard internet connection is converted into a place to make phone calls. To know more go through the article given below to learn the working of a VoIP.
Working Of A VoIP
There are three different ways in which a VoIP works.
ATA (Analog Telephone Adaptor)
- The ATA is an analog-to-digital converter.
- This device allows one to connect a standard phone to the computer and the internet connection for using VoIP.
- What the ATA device does is that it takes the analog signal from the phone and converts it into digital data. This digital data can then be transmitted over the internet.
- Some service providers give ATA’s free with their service.
- These are specialized phones, which look like normal phones and come with handset, cradle, and buttons.
- IP phones do not have the standard RJ-11 phone connectors. Instead, they come with an RJ-45 Ethernet connector.
- This phone is connected directly into the router. IP phones have all the hardware and software that are necessary to handle the IP call.
- This is the easiest way to use VoIP. It is also very inexpensive.
- The basic requirements are software, a microphone, speakers, a sound card, and a fast internet connection.
How It Works
- The basic principle in which the VoIP works is known as ‘packet switching’.
- In VoIP, the file is cut down to half for greater efficiency. This can be done because only half the connection is in use at any given time. In addition, the ‘silent intervals’ are removed and so the files are made even smaller.
- Next, instead of sending a continuous stream of bytes, in VoIP, the bytes are sent only in packets.
- These bytes are routed through a chaotic network, instead of a dedicated line. The entire process is known as packet switching.
- In packet switching, the connection is opened for only a brief instant, just the time required to send a small ‘packet’ of data, from one system to another.
How The Packet Switching System Works?
- The computer from which data is sent chops the data into small packets. It also fixes an address on each one detailing the network device where to send them.
- Each packet contains a payload. This payload can be anything from e-mails, music file to voice (noise).
- The packets are then sent to a router, which is nearby to the sending computer. The router then sends the packet to another router that is near the recipient computer. The packets are then sent form router to router until the receiving computer gets the packets.
- The computer then resembles the data to their original form using the instructions contained in the packets. All the packets traverse different paths to get to the computer.
- This makes VoIP efficient, fast, and very inexpensive.