An ovarian cyst can be understood as a collection of fluid, which is bordered by a flimsy or thin wall, inside the ovary. Any ovarian follicle that is larger than about 2 cm can be categorized as a cyst. Most of the cysts are functional in nature and are usually, harmless. Ovarian cysts affect women of all ages and, generally, occur during the child bearing years of a woman. Some of the cysts can be painful and result in bleeding as well. A cyst larger than 5 cm in diameter may require surgical intervention. The article dwells at great length, on the different types of ovarian cysts that can form in the body. Read on to know their details.
Different Kinds Of Ovarian Cysts
Functional cysts or simple cysts are not the indicators of a disease; rather form a part of the normal menstruation process. These cysts can be categorized into three types, Graafian, Luteal, and Hemorrhagic. These three cysts occur during ovulation. Mostly, they disappear after a few menstruation cycles.
- Graafian Follicular Cyst: This is the most common functional ovarian cyst. It can grow up to about 6 cm in diameter, is thin-walled and filled with clear fluid. The cyst can form when the ovulation process doesn’t occur and the follicle doesn’t rupture or release its egg, but grows to become a cyst. The rupture of this cyst can produce a sharp and intense pain, on whichever side of the ovary the cyst appears.
- Corpus Luteum Cyst: This type of cyst forms after the follicle has released an egg. Then, the follicle becomes Corpus Luteum, a secretary gland. The cyst may rupture around the time of menstruation and may take up to three months to disappear completely. This cyst usually breaks down to disappear in the absence of the development of pregnancy.
- Hemorrhagic Cyst: This type of cyst is also called a blood cyst, hematocele and hematocyst. It occurs when a very small blood vessel breaks in the cyst wall and blood enters the cyst. Abdominal pain is experienced on one side, usually the right side of the body. Clots develop, which are visible on a sonogram, as the blood collects within the ovary. Rupturing of Hemorrhagic cyst is uncommon, but if it takes place, it is severely painful.
This type of cyst is a cystic teratoma containing developmentally mature skin, complete with hair follicles and sweat glands. Sometimes, lavish clumps of long hair develop and pockets of sebum, blood, fat, bone, nails, teeth, eyes, cartilage, and thyroid tissue also appear. Due to the presence of mature tissue, Dermoid cyst is mostly benign. The appearance of malignant Dermoid cyst is uncommon. It may rarely appear in adults, babies and children, and mostly develops in endodermal sinus tumor.
This type of cyst, also calledendometrioma, endometrioid cyst, endometrial cyst, or chocolate cyst of ovary, is related to a condition known as endometriosis. Such a cyst is formed when a small patch of endometrial tissue bleeds, sloughs off, becomes transplanted, and develops to enlarge inside the ovaries. Blood building up over years becomes brown in color. When the cyst ruptures, the brown material spills over into the pelvis and onto the surface of the uterus, bladder, bowel, and the analogous spaces between them.
Pathological cysts may include both tumors and endometriosis. Their appearance is uncommon and can be diagnosed only after doctor's examination. The cysts causing tumor, which can be defined as a pathological ovarian cyst, may be either benign or malignant. Usually, a tumor is 6 cm or more in diameter, apart from being thick-walled and persistent.