The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) states that a mental disorder is any clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome that is characterized by the presence of distressing symptoms, impairment of functioning, or significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or loss of freedom. Mental disorders are seen as demonstrating a behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction in the victim. The article dwells on the various types of mental disorders that can affect people. Read on to know more on mental illnesses.
Kinds Of Mental Illnesses
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is formally called hyperkinesis or minimal brain dysfunction. It is a neurologically based syndrome, which is characterized by hyperactivity, distractibility or impulsivity or all the three symptoms. This disorder is usually diagnosed before the age of seven.
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by chronic behavior that includes manipulation, exploiting and violating the rights of others. It is a psychiatric condition marked by criminal behavior. People who suffer from this disorder often have extensive substance abuse and legal problems.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
GAD is a different level of anxiety than the normal day-to-day anxiety people suffer from. It is chronic in nature and is marked by exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is no reason to feel so. The victims of this disorder habitually anticipate disaster, worry excessively about health, money, family or work. The source of worry is difficult to pin down in such patients.
Autism is a developmental disorder adversely impacting the brain’s normal development of social and communication skills. Mostly, it appears in the first three years of life. According to studies, autism is more common in boys than girls. Children suffering from this type of mental disorders require therapy and special tutors.
The medical term for Manic Depression is Bipolar Disorder. It is characterized by mood swings that alter between different periods of mania and depression. This disorder has also been called Bipolar Affective Disorder and Manic-Depressive Illness. The patients of this disorder dream of their death at the lowest point of their depression. Such dreams are followed by an upward mood swing.
Borderline Personality Disorder
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a mental disorder of serious nature, which is characterized by instability in moods, interpersonal relationships, self-image, and behavior. Normal family and work life, long term planning and patient’s sense of self-identity is disrupted by this instability.
Depression is understood as a sinking feeling of extreme vulnerability and discouragement. It can affect any age and is not connected with, or does not develop into insanity. Lack of energy or desire to perform day-to-day activities is read as a severe case of depression. While some people experience depression once or twice in a lifetime, some experience it as a recurring disease.
Fragile X Syndrome
Fragile X syndrome is marked by changes in the long arm of the X chromosome. It is a genetic condition characterized by mental retardation. This disorder affects boys more severely than girls because they have only one X chromosome, while girls have two X chromosomes. This syndrome is also called as Fragile X.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
OCD is characterized by anxious thoughts or rituals you feel are beyond your control. Persistent, unwelcome thoughts or images, or an urgent need to engage in certain rituals, checking things frequently and doubting are the hallmark of OCD. Frequents thoughts of violence and that people will harm you are also experienced.
People with panic disorder feel terrorized and the feeling strikes suddenly, without any warning. It is not possible to predict the timing of the attack and many patients develop intense anxiety between episodes. The heart begins to pound and one may feel sweaty, weak, or dizzy, when the attack occurs. These attacks can occur any time during the day, even during sleep.
This is the type of depression that a mother can experience, immediately after the birth of the child. It is serious in nature and can last for a long time. This mental disorder is seen in approximately ten percent of childbearing women. Counseling and treatment is required to remedy postpartum depression.
Rett syndrome affects only females and can cause mental retardation and developmental degeneration. It can also cause miscarriage, stillbirth or early death in women. The disorder is quite often misdiagnosed as autism, cerebral palsy or non-specific developmental delay.
Schizophrenia is a disabling brain disease, chronic and severe in nature. The disorder affects both the sexes with equal frequency. It is more common in men, more so in those who are in the late teens or early twenties. People suffering from this disorder experience terrifying symptoms, such as the feeling that other people are trying to harm them or controlling their mind.