The earth with its many land forms is indeed paradise. Read on to know about the types of landforms, the splendour of the planet we call Earth.
Earth is the collaboration of the various physical features found on its surface. These physical features on the surface of the earth are also called or referred to as landforms. Landforms are nothing but the geographical features of earth that manipulate and control the ecosystem, climate, weather and the essence of life on the surface of the earth. Forces of nature like wind, water, ice and the movement of the tectonic plates of the earth, all contributes in the formation of these landforms and their movements. Some of these landforms are created within few hours while others take years to form and appear. It is essential for these landforms to move and grow in a systematic order under full control and supervision of the natural forces. Any deviation in the normal movement or existence of these landforms can cause immense destruction to life and property. Let us learn and discuss about the different kinds of landforms that together make the landscape of our beautiful planet.
Different Kinds Of Landforms
Mountains are areas higher than the surrounding areas which were formed due to the tectonic movements, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and even due to the erosion of the surrounding areas caused due to wind, water and ice. Mountains are found in the oceans and on land.
Plateaus are nothing but flat highlands that are separated from the surroundings due to steep slopes. Collisions of tectonic plates, magma action that causes the elevation in earth’s crust etc can all lead to the formation of plateaus.
Valleys are flat areas between hills and mountains and are caused due to the actions of glaciers and rivers over millions of years. Valleys are divided into two kinds depending on their shape viz. V shaped valleys and U shaped valleys. V-shaped valleys are formed by the flowing rivers and U-shaped valleys are formed due to glaciers.
The desert is a dry piece of land with little or no vegetation due to lack of adequate rainfall. They are found mainly in rain shadow areas. The desert is leeward of a mountain region with respect to the wind direction. The mountains block the wind resulting in lack of rain.
An island is a piece of land which is surrounded by water from all sides. Islands are formed either due to volcanic eruptions or due to hot spots in the lithosphere.
Plains are the landforms that form the flat or the low relief areas on the surface of the earth. This type of landform might be formed as a result of the sedimentation of eroded soil from the top of the hills and mountains or might be due to flowing lava.
Rivers are natural flowing streams of fresh water descending from mountains flowing toward a lake, sea, ocean or another river. Occasionally, a river just flows into the ground or dries up entirely before reaching another water body.
An Ocean is the biggest water body found on earth and is saline in nature. Oceans cover over 71% of the earth’s surface and also play an important role in controlling the weather and climate of the earth. Oceans originated due to continental drifts.
Loess are deposits of salt mixed with little amount of sand and clay. Loess can be the result of wind or glacial activities.
Glaciers are slow moving huge bodies of ice which take shape due to the compression of the snow layers. Glaciers move depending on the pressure and gravity. There are two types of glaciers, the alpine glaciers which can be located in high mountains and the continental glaciers which can be located in cold Polar regions.
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