Sun, the center of our Solar System, is the main source of light and energy for the Earth. All the eight planets, along with asteroids, meteoroids and comets, revolve around this huge ball of fire. The surface composition of the Sun includes hydrogen, helium and trace quantities of other elements, like Iron, Nickel, Oxygen, Silicon, Sulfur, Magnesium, Carbon, Neon, Calcium, and Chromium. Sun has a surface temperature of approximately 5,780 K (5506.85 C) and it is about 1.496×1011 m from Earth. Let us now talk about the formation of the huge, heat spitting star.
How Did the Sun Form
Though exact information of the formation of the sun is not available, it is believed that it formed between ten and twenty thousand million years ago. As per the astronomers, the hydrogen gas present in the sun came into existence with the ‘Big Bang’. In other words, the sun came into being around the same time as the rest of the universe. At the time of the Big Bang, hydrogen gas condensed to form colossal clouds, which later concentrated and formed the numerous galaxies. Some of the hydrogen gas was left free and started floating around in our galaxy.
With time, due to some incident, this free-floating hydrogen gas concentrated and paved way for the formation of the Sun and the Solar System. Gradually, the Sun and the solar system turned into a slowly spinning molecular cloud, composed of hydrogen and helium molecules, along with dust. The cloud started to undergo the process of compression, as a result of its own gravity. Along with the compression, the rotating speed of the cloud became much faster. Its excessive and high-speed spinning ultimately resulted in its flattening into a giant disk.
Majority of the mass of the disk started collecting right at its center, resulting in the creation of a gas sphere. The sphere continued to attract material from the disk, which resulted in its further compression. This led to an increase in the temperatures and pressures inside the sphere, which rose to the extent where atoms started fusing in its very center. This is the point of time when a star - the Sun, formed, from the sphere. The rest of the disk, apart from the sphere, turned into planets and the other components of the solar system.