Dating back and exploring the intricacies of the world’s oldest civilization provides endless fascination to many of the modern era. Read on to brush up your knowledge of history.

World’s Oldest Civilizations

Which is the oldest civilization to land on earth is a question that has been bothering us for eons and eons. Archaeological evidence has extracted disseminated mind-blowing details of the past. Unfortunately, some of the mysteries of the world will always remain mysteries. Some complain that all the records, glyphs and information on the true oldest civilization have been destroyed and hence, can no more be determined. One fact that we have derived is that despite the advances in technology and culture made over the centuries, man hasn’t changed much biologically since about 200,000 years. Cities have formed, skyscrapers built and internal combustion engines designed ever since, making the evolution of life one of the most fascinating topics of discussion. Many think of it as important to discover, preserve, examine and to improve understandings about humankind's past which will help us further comprehend and appreciate the major changes in development. Learning about our ancient past is always a pleasure and satisfies our undying curiosities. Fossils and various relics are subject to intense scrutiny until plausible deductions have been made. Follow this article to encounter some of the world’s oldest civilizations.

Oldest Civilizations Of the World 

Chinese Civilization
The Chinese are proud of their rich heritage and culture that dates back to about 7000 BC. The oldest pre-civilized neolithic cultures emanating from China include the Pengtoushan, the Jiahu, and the Peiligang. The influence of these civilizations is still prevalent within the Chinese boundaries. A cave in Zhoukoudian contains fossils dated somewhere between 300,000 to 550,000 years. The fist traditional Chinese civilization was dynasty Xia which was initially considered mythical until scientific excavations proved its existence by finding early bronze-age sites in Henan Province. Several fossils have been found in China including the ‘Yuanmou Man’, the first ‘Homo erectus’ who lived 1.7 million years ago and the ‘Peking Man’, who lived at Zhoukoudian in today's suburban Beijing 600,000 years ago. The Shang Dynasty replaced the Xia Dynasty and witnessed the ascension of bronze culture and rapid development of pottery.

The Indus Valley Civilization
A bronze age civilization centred predominantly in the western part of the Indian subcontinent, the Indus Valley Civilization has been a revered chapter in before the common era history. This civilization encompassed a big chunk of what is Pakistan now. The mature phase of this civilization is known as the Harappan Civilization. Excavated walls of a Harappan urban city, one of the most mysterious cultures of the ancient Indian world more than 4,000 years ago were examined. A Dravidian language was used for communication and the artifacts from Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus Valley of Pakistan are extraordinarily intricate and beautiful. The dance customs were depicted through gold, terra-cotta and stone figurines of girls in intriguing dancing poses.

Egyptian Civilization
One of the three oldest civilizations in the world, the rise of the Egyptian civilization in the Nile Valley started with the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt in approximately 3200 BC. The customs and culture were adapted from an even older African kingdom named Kush. The ancient Egypt civilization is most recognized for the Pyramids of Giza and the rule of powerful Pharaohs which ended in 31 BC when The Romans caught hold of Egypt after defeating Queen Cleopatra. Estimated flooding and superbly controlled irrigation within the fertile Nile River valley produced surplus crops, thus crowning the Egyptian Civilization adept in social development and culture. Egypt left a lasting legacy with dazzling antiquities now under limelight in several museums of the world. In Northern Egypt, the Badari was followed by Amratian and Gerzian cultures which showed a number of technological improvements. The Naqada culture soon gained momentum and contributed to increasing power and wealth of the elite by introducing painted pottery, high quality decorative stone vases, cosmetic palettes, and jewellery made of gold, lapis, and ivory.

Sumerian Civilization
The Sumerian civilization emerged upon the flood plain of the lower reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers about 4000 B.C. The social structure of the Sumerians was decidedly different from other societies of that and later times. The Sumerian civilization was characterized with craftsmen, priests and peasants. The people were to devote their lives to propitiating the gods to prevent calamities from befalling the community. Egypt and Babylonia were highly influenced by the Sumerian civilization.

Babylon Civilization
What is presently Iraq was once Babylonia, an ancient cultural region in central-southern Mesopotamia. It emerged as a result of Hammurabi's impetus to create an empire out of the territories of the former Akkadian Empire. The earliest most traceable mention of the Babylon city dates back to the 23rd century BC in a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad. The collapse last Sumerian "Ur-III" dynasty right before the hands of the Elamites signalled the beginning of the Babylon Era. The Babylonians engaged in regular trade with city-states to the west; with Babylonian officials or troops sometimes passing to Syria and Canaan, and Amorite merchants operating throughout Mesopotamia. Babylonia was absorbed into the Achaemenid Empire in 539 BC. The Babylonian culture was defined by an abundance of clay and a lack of stone. The Babylonian temples were essentially massive structures of crude brick, supported by buttresses with the rain being carried away by drains.

Greek Civilization
Greek Civilization lasted from the Archaic Period of 8th to 6th century BC to 146 BC, and the Roman conquest of Greece after the Battle of Cornith. The Greek Civilization is known to survive several empires that flourished through Greece by various leaders. The Athens defeated the Persians to take over who were then defeated by Sparta in the Peloponnesian War. Nonetheless, the Greek culture influenced various parts of the Mediterranean and later spread throughout Europe. Greek Dark Ages, Classical Greece, Roman Greece, Byzantine Greece, and Ottoman Greece are some civilizations that thrived in Greece.
Roman Civilization
Dating back to as early as the 10th century BC, Roman Civilization began on the Italian Peninsula from a small agricultural community. As the community grew along the Mediterranean Sea, the civilization came to be known as one of the largest empires in the ancient world dominating South-Western Europe, South-Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean region largely through conquest and assimilation. Though the western part was broken into small independent kingdoms after attacks, the eastern part survived only to be later known as the Byzantine Empire. The Roman Civilization is largely responsible for contributing towards the development of law, war, art, literature, government, technology, religion and language in the Western World.

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