Weight Loss Surgery is one of the safest methods to get rid of the excess body fat that accumulates because of obesity. Though most of us have heard about the term ‘Obesity’, very few actually know what it exactly is. Obesity is the name given to the condition where the accumulation of fat in a person’s body exceeds its skeletal and physical standards. As per the National Institutes of Health (NIH), when a person’s body weight increases to 20 percent more than what his ideal weight should be, it becomes a health risk.
Weight Loss Surgery - Introduction
Weight Loss Surgery, though a single term; encompasses a number of procedures within its boundaries. The procedure that will be used as a part of the surgery differs from individual to individual, depending upon the level of obesity and the health problems, if any, faced by an individual. The best way is to consult a bariatric surgeon, who will be able to guide you to the right procedure as well as the approximate cost which starts from Rs. 1.5 lakhs onwards. Though other sources like, people who have undergone similar surgery or health magazines or internet, may provide you with information about the procedure, they will not give you a clear view as to which surgery will be safe for you.
Just like any other surgery, weight loss surgery also has risks and complications attached to its positive effects. It is better to be well informed about all the risks of weight loss surgery
well in advance. Before going in for the surgery, you will also be required to sign a consent form, which says that you have understood all about the surgery, its merits and demerits, and are ready to go for it. With time, the surgical procedures have improved, bringing about an improvement in results and minimization of risks.
Basic Procedures of Weight Loss Surgery
There are basically two procedures involved in the weight loss surgery, used for curing obesity, namely:
In the restrictive procedures used for weight loss surgery, the aim is to decrease the food intake of the individual.
In the malabsorptive procedures, the digestion is altered in such a way that the food gets digested very poorly. In the other words, it is incompletely absorbed and gets eliminated in the stool.
Vertical Banded Gastroplasty (Restrictive Procedure)
Vertical Banded Gastroplasty is a restrictive procedure of obesity weight loss surgery. It involves stapling of the upper stomach, near the esophagus, for around 2½ inches (6 cm). This results in the creation of a small pouch, with an outlet that is controlled by a band or ring. This band/ring is responsible for slowing down the draining of the food and ultimately, leading to creation of the feeling of fullness. As a result, the patient eats less and is able to reduce weight easily.
Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (Restrictive Procedure)
Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band procedure is form of the restrictive weight loss surgery procedure. In this, a band is positioned around the uppermost part of the stomach. The placement of the band results in the division of the stomach into two portions, of which one is small and the other is larger. This results in the regulation of the food, which ultimately creates a feeling of fullness in a person and he doesn’t feel the need to eat large quantities of food. There is no alteration of the natural digestive process.
Biliopancreatic Diversion (Malabsorptive Procedure)
In the Biliopancreatic Diversion also, the size of the stomach is reduced and a stomach pouch is created. However, the size of the pouch is much larger as compared to those under the restrictive procedures. The structure of small intestine is changed, with the result that the bile and pancreatic juices get diverted and get combined with food closer to its middle or end. The ultimate result is that absorption of nutrients and calories gets reduced and this leads to weight loss.
Gastric Bypass Roux-en-Y (Combination of Restrictive & Malabsorptive Procedure)
The Gastric Bypass Roux-en-Y procedure is a sort of combination of the Combined Restrictive & Malabsorptive Procedure. In this surgery, apart from creating a pouch, malabsorption is added. The effect is that there is a time lapse in addition of the bile and pancreatic juices to the nutrients. The person, on whom surgery has been done, gets a feeling of fullness and satisfaction early and consumes less food.