One of the reasons for existence of life on our planet is the distance from sun, which is just right for Dihydrogen Monoxide (DHMO) to exist in its liquid form on the planet. In fact, the liquid form of DHMO covers almost 70% of the earth’s surface. Yes, you guessed it right! DHMO is nothing, but the chemical name for our planet’s lifeline, ‘water’. Water is so important for life that in many cultures it is revered as a god or deity. Water also constitutes up to 70% of human body and is essential for proper body functioning and health. The importance of water for human beings can be understood from the fact that most of the ancient civilizations sprang up next to some major rivers. Even though water covers the majority of the surface, all the water found on the planet is not the same. Water is available in three forms, in the vapor state in the atmosphere, in the liquid state on the surface and as polar ice caps on elevated regions. The liquid state of water that exists on the planet differs in composition and properties. Browse through the article and distinguish the different types of water. The information would surely help you understand what distinguishes each type of water.
Different Kinds Of Water
Fresh water is naturally occurring water on the Earth's surface and underground and typically contains less than 1% sodium chloride. More than 70% of world’s fresh water is consumed by agriculture. Only 2.75 percent of the water on Earth is fresh water, about two-thirds of it is frozen in glaciers, a quarter is groundwater and only 0.005 percent of it is surface water. Fresh water may be either ‘hard’ or ‘soft’. Hard water is rich in calcium and magnesium salts and is uneasy to work with. Soft fresh water, on the other hand, contains no calcium or magnesium ions and can be used for household purposes and even drinking, if clean.
Brackish water is the type of water that has salinity between that of fresh water and seawater. Normally, brackish water contains between 1 and 2.5% sodium chloride, either from natural sources around otherwise fresh water or by dilution of seawater. There is high biological activity in brackish water and this can be significantly modified by higher concentrations of nutrients. The main environmental factors responsible, single-handedly or in combination, for these differences are the salinity, the degree of pollution, and the prevalence of silt. Brackish water is unreceptive to the growth of most terrestrial plant species. IN case of lack of proper management, brackish water can be detrimental to the environment.
Seawater typically contains about 3.5% sodium chloride, although the salinity may be weak in some areas as a result of dilution with fresh water or concentrated by solar evaporation in others. Seawater is normally more corrosive than fresh water, because of the higher conductivity and the penetrating power of the chloride ion through surface films on a metal. The rate of corrosion is controlled by the chloride content, oxygen availability, and the temperature.
Distilled/ Demineralized Water
Distilled water basically stands for the water that is ripped of its impurities through the process of distillation. The process involves boiling water and then condensing the steam into a clean container. However, apart from distillation, the total mineral content of water can also be removed by mixed-bed ion exchange, reverse osmosis and electro-dialysis. Demineralized water finds specific purpose in boilers, storage batteries and chemical processes.
Water condensed from industrial steam is called steam condensate. It is almost as pure as distilled water, but is contaminated by other gases present in its atmosphere such as carbon dioxide. Some additives that are added deliberately include amines and other chemicals.
Boiler Feed Water
The feed water make-up for boilers is always softened and subsequently de-aerated. The quality varies from a high level of dissolved solids (e.g., Zeolite-Treated), to very pure demineralized feed for high-pressure boilers. It tends to be highly corrosive, because of its softness, until thoroughly de-aerated. This is the reason why boiler feed water is commonly known as de-aerated water.
Potable water is fresh water that is sanitized with oxidizing biocides such as chlorine or ozone to kill bacteria and make it safe for drinking purposes. By definition, certain mineral constituents are also restricted. They are supplied through public or privatedispensing systems and contain a chain of source to destination supply units, water treatment plants and other features. Potable water is a basic necessity and considered a rightful amenity for every citizen.
Cooling water is used for cooling down surfaces of engines and other components which tend to overheat. Cooling is very necessary as the overheating can cause subsequent changes in the stability and structure of the device. Cooling water can have different compositions based on the level of heat and also composition of the surface and corrosive problems.
Waste water is any water that is discarded after use. Sanitary waste from private or industrial applications is contaminated with fecal matter, soaps, detergents, etc. Industrial wastes from chemical or petrochemical sources can contain high levels of specific contaminants, which greatly complicate the removal of these impurities by natural methods and cause problems for the environment.