A joint holds together two or more different bones of the body. There are about three types of joints in a body - fibrous, cartilagenus and synovial joint. A number of differences differentiate these three types of joints. Talking about the synovial joint, it is the most common and movable or flexible type of joint present in a mammal’s body. Also known as ‘diarthrosis’, a synovial joint achieves movement at the point of contact of the articulating bones. The primary objective of the synovial joints is to allow smooth and free movement of the body parts. These joints work in colligation with each other and other joints to provide stability, flexibility, balance and strength to the body. The synovial joints can be categorized by the movements, which they permit, as well as the shape of the anterior surface. The synovial joints are further split up into categories such as ball and socket, hinge, gliding, pivot, saddle, and condyloid. These joints provide the most obtrusive bodily movements like the bending of the knee, rotation of the head and so on. Read to know the different kinds of synovial joints in our body.
Different Kinds Of Synovial Joints
Gliding joints are like two plates sliding across one another. Carpal bones of the wrist are an example of a bone forming a gliding synovial joint. Also known as planar joints, gliding joints allow a smooth movement in several directions over smooth surfaces.
Saddle joints resemble similarity to a rider in a saddle with two bones that fit together. This characteristic of a saddle allows bending motion in several directions, without sliding. The carpal-metacarpal joint of thumb is an example of a saddle joint.
Condyloid joints are more or less similar to the gliding joints with an irregular surface, where the bones move past one another. It is like two bowls nested together, like the radio-carpal joint of the wrist.
Hinged joints are formed between two bones allowing for stable flexion and extension without any sliding or deviation. The elbow joint between arm bone and ulna is one such hinge synovial joint.
Ball and Socket Joint
These joints help in the stable and smooth movement of the joints in various directions without any slipping. Both the ball and socket joints help in a stable and strong joint formation. The hip joint is an example of a ball and socket synovial joint.
A pivotal joint helps in a rotational movement without any gliding. This type of joint helps in the rotating movement of the part of the body, without any displacements or bending. The joint between the first and the second cervical vertebrae is an example of a pivotal joint, which is responsible for most of the movement of head, keeping the stability of the head on the neck.
The long bone that forms the outer section of the forearm is an example of a radius joint. This bone is connected to the carpal bone to form the wrist joint.