Genetic disorders are caused by the certain abnormalities in the chromosomes or the genes. Basically, they are of four types - single gene disorders, multifactorial disorders, chromosomal disorders and mitochondrial disorders. Single gene disorder is the result of changes in the DNA sequence of any one gene. Multifactorial disorder is a kind of genetic disorder in which both the environmental factors and the mutations in multiple genes play a role. In case of chromosomal disorder, abnormalities are recorded in the chromosomes. Since chromosomes serve as the gene carrier, the genes are simultaneously affected. Mitochondrial genetic disorder is a rare kind of disorder, which results from mutations in the non-chromosomal DNA of mitochondria. Under these main categories, there are several kinds of genetic disorders. We bring you some of the common genetic disorders in the lines below.
List Of Common Genetic Diseases
It is a genetic disorder that causes damage to brain never cells, gradually. It comes under the category of genetic disorders called leukodystrophies, which are characterized by the degeneration of myelin - the protective layer of nerve fibers.
Celiac disease is a disease affecting the small bowel. The main symptoms of the disease are fatigue or diarrhea. The disease is caused by the reaction to gliadin. In this disease, the lining of the small intestine becomes flat.
Charcot - Marie - Tooth Disease
It is a heterogeneous genetic disorder of nerves, in which a person loses the muscle tissue and touch sensation in the legs, feet, arms and hands.
Cri Du Chat
This disorder occurs in infant stage and is characterized by kitten cries of babies. The symptoms of the disease are uncommon facial traits, speech delays, and behavioral problems like hyperactivity, aggression and repetitive movements.
It is a type of genetic disorder which affects the whole body. This disease is associated with symptoms like difficulty in breathing and low enzyme production in pancreas. Some other symptoms of the disease are diarrhea, sinus infections, and lung infections.
This disease is associated with problems in facial traits, cognitive ability and physical evolution. In most of the cases, the disease can be detected at the time of birth itself.
This disease is associated with a condition in which body fails to control bleeding. The bleeding can be either external or internal in nature.
It is a different kind of genetic disorder, which leads to the formation of tumors along the different nerves. These tumors can affect other parts of the body as well, like the bones and skin.
Klinefelter Syndrome’s main effect is seen in decreased fertility. It also affects the testicular evolution.
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
It is a kind of mortal disorder, where the muscle weakens gradually. This disease damages the muscular tissue, starting from legs and pelvis and gradually harming the entire body.
This is a rare genetic disorder in which the affected person faces evolutional and intellectual delay, problems with speaking and sleep difficulty.